The AP subsequently reported that Francis had received a letter in from one of Karadima's most vocal accusers, Juan Carlos Cruz, detailing Barros' misdeeds. The remarks in Chile highlighted concerns about the pope's commitment to combating sexual abuse by members of the Catholic clergy — an issue that has undermined the Church's moral authority in much of the world. The AP news agency reported earlier this year that Francis did so over the objections of other Chilean bishops who knew Barros' past was problematic and had recommended he and other Karadima-trained bishops resign and take a sabbatical. Since the s, child molestation and the sexual abuse of children has increasingly been recognized as deeply damaging to children and thus unacceptable for society as a whole. Francis can accept the resignations one by one, reject them or delay a decision. It noted "endemic" sexual abuse in Catholic boys' institutions, saying that church leaders were aware of abuses and that government inspectors failed to "stop beatings, rapes and humiliation. The institutionalization of child maltreatment interventions in federally funded centers, national and international societies, and a host of research studies in which the United States continues to lead the world offers grounds for cautious optimism. Wikipedia has many articles on occurrence within different religious groups. In , allegations of sexual abuse of 47 young seminarians surfaced in Argentina. Calls had mounted for the resignations after details emerged of the contents of a 2,page Vatican report into the Chilean scandal leaked early on Friday. In one of the most damning documents from the Vatican on the issue, Francis said the entire Chilean church hierarchy was collectively responsible for "grave defects" in handling cases and the resulting loss of credibility that the Catholic Church has suffered. Cifarelli has written that children involved in the legal system, particularly victims of sexual abuse and molestation, should be afforded certain procedural safeguards to protect them from harassment during the legal process. Studies on child molestation were not published in English until the s. Earlier, the pope summoned the bishops to Rome for a meeting to discuss the "grave events" hounding the predominantly Catholic country in Latin America. However, by the focus had shifted to Europe. Since lawsuits can involve demanding procedures, there is a concern that children or adults who file suit will be re-traumatized by defendants through the legal process , much as rape victims can be re-traumatized by the accused in criminal rape trials. Although nationwide inquiries have been conducted only in the United States and Ireland, as well as an Australian inquiry into institutional responses , cases of clerical sexual abuse of minors have been reported and prosecuted in New Zealand , Canada and other countries.