The study was designed with particular emphasis on adding detail and context to the aggregate state figures produced and disseminated by NCMEC. What types of offenses have they committed, and how many are repeat offenders? This creates certain con- founding problems with direct implications for policy, planning, and resource allocation. The federal law mainly sought to standardize how sex offenders were categorized and registered throughout the county. Considering these factors, an aggregate count by state has limited practical utility for practitioners, policy makers, and the public, whereas a more com- plete picture of RSOs across risk and management levels would provide a far more revelatory picture. The federal government later extends the deadline to July Williams filed his notice of appeal in January Since the mids, an emerging body of research has begun to analyze the impacts of state-level SORN systems. Officials on this list were then contacted via email and provided with a link to an online survey, developed and administered using Survey Gizmo, a commercial tool designed for online data collection. Details on these cases can be found below. Her parents and neighbors were unaware the convicted offender had moved in. The Williams decision was House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary, Beyond these questions regarding the RSO population, another set of unanswered questions concerns the scope and operations of the registries themselves. Such laws were challenged in the past because of their punitive nature and their retroactivity.