The movement emphasized social realism. The most successful Indian actor during the s—s, he is considered one of India's greatest and most influential movie stars. The three Khans have had successful careers since the late s,  and have dominated the Indian box office since the s,  across three decades. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots; such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the films Khalnayak and Gardish. Urdu and related Hindi dialects were the most widely understood across northern India, thus Hindi-Urdu became the standardized language of early Indian talkies. Kapoor followed the " tramp " style of Charlie Chaplin , Anand modelled himself after the "suave" style of Hollywood movie stars like Gregory Peck and Cary Grant , and Kumar pioneered a form of method acting that was similar to yet predated Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist , but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. Manmohan Desai went on to successfully exploit the genre in the s and s. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released in The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir ,  urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai. This decade also marked the entry of new performers in arthouse and independent films, some of which succeeded commercially, the most influential example being Satya , directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. In the early 20th century, Urdu was the lingua franca of popular cultural performances across northern India, established in popular performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry , and Parsi theater. Pyaar Hai , Gadar: These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class life in India , particularly urban life in the former two examples; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. Both these trends, the masala film and the violent crime film, are represented by the blockbuster Sholay , written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people, including the lyricist, filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna,  and the journalist Bevinda Collaco.